Building strength from diversity.
Diversity signifies recognizing that everyone is different in one way or the other, and valuing the heterogeneity. A diverse and united Iraq makes the country adaptive and resilient, and this is the goal of Federalism– embracing diversity, overcoming its challenges and capitalizing on the advantages of being a nation.
The literature on federalism is wide and varied. The scholarly interest in federalism has its origins in the late 18th century and the 19th century, when the transition of the United States to a federal model gave rise to intellectual and analytical debates about the meaning and the characteristics of federalism. 
​In a federation, the national and provincial or state governments work together to serve citizens and run the country. Usually, the national government deals with issues that affect the whole country like defence and international trade while sub-national governments, often called states or provinces, are concerned with more local matters like roads, schools and basic public services.